Types of Educational Policy in Nigeria – Information (2023)

What are the Types of Educational Policy in Nigeria?Education is the practice of teaching and learning of knowledge and skills from the learned to the pupil, for the sake of building a better life for the individual, and society at large. This is an age-old practice that has some of its earliest traces in ancient Greece, where it meant teaching the values and traditions of the state to the younger generation, plus all the basic survival skills that was meant to keep them alive and well, thereby building a healthy population which could thrive higher than its peers.

Education In Nigeria

Education in Nigeria is regulated by the Ministry of Education. Local Education Departments (LED) authorities are responsible for implementing a state-controlled policy regarding public education as well as state schools. The education system is divided into Kindergarten, Primary education, Secondary education and Tertiary education (universities, colleges {including colleges of education} polytechnics monotechnics and institutes of specialized learning). Nigeria’s federal government structure has been dominated by instability since declaring independence from Britain. Policies of the previous government have been often discarded and discredited as soon as a new government comes into office, and, as a result, a unified set of education policies has never really been successfully implemented in Nigeria.

There has been a huge gap in quality, curriculum, and funding characterizing the education system from region to region in Nigeria.

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As per law, Nigeria presently operates an educational policy called the Universal Basic Education (UBE). The policy/ law stipulates a 9-year formal schooling, adult literacy, and non-formal education, skill acquisition programs, and as a matter of law the policy is all-inclusive, and so the education of special groups such as nomadic children, as well as migrants, girl child and women, Al-majiri (Northern street children who study Islamic laws ), street children and also disabled people.

This scheme is monitored by the Universal Basic Education Commission, UBEC, which is an arm of the Nigerian Ministry of Education, that is backed by international agencies. UBEC is empowered to take proactive measures to ensure that Universal Basic Education is made “free”, “compulsory” and a right of every child. This power comes from the UBEC law section 15 which defines Universal Basic Education as early childhood care and education. The UBE system may also be referred to as the 9 3 4 system of education, which stipulates a mandatory 9 years of primary and junior secondary education (this is officially referred to as basic 1 to 9), which is then followed by 3 years of senior secondary education, and then capped by for years in a University for the finishing touches.

Immediately before this was the 6334 system of Education, which was a national policy that stipulated six years of Primary Education, Three years of Junior Secondary School, Three years of senior secondary school, and then Four years of University Education.

Types of Educational Policy in Nigeria

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Also before that was the 5 6 4 system which was discarded in 1982. That system mandated that students pass through 5 years of early schooling (form 1 to 5) followed by 6 years of secondary school education (standard 1 to 6) and then capped by 4 years in a university system.

It is worthy to mention that Nigeria currently possesses the largest number of out-of-school learning youth in the world. Therefore, it is a good idea to devote the rest of this article to discuss the structure of Informal education in Nigeria.

Informal education and literacy programmes as they are found in Nigeria.

As mentioned earlier Nigeria has the highest population of youths studying informally in the world. This has been caused by several factors, difficult to exhaust in a single review. However, informal modes of education have formed the very foundation for tertiary education in Nigeria for many years and are still at play today. Informal education continues to play a major role when it comes to technical skills acquisition and dissemination in Nigeria. Nigeria has built a unique system of informal education, which supersedes the formal institutions in certain technical areas, and which play a prime role in the development of the country. These programs and structures are difficult to study because they are not grouped together, and neither is there a central monitoring or overseeing agency or authority. Therefore, these centers of technical studies remain largely and anonymous and decentralized in their missions and practices.

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Many academics have concluded that the prevalent overall lack of funding and centralization has significantly hindered the quality, and recognition that should ordinarily be associated with informal literacy programs for both school-age children and adults, measured by their level of importance in the Nigerian educational development structure.

However, many of these informal places of learning have achieved success in promoting employment as well as increasing the economic prospects for those who have utilized the programs. In addition to the vocational apprenticeships which have long established themselves in the Nigerian system, the Nigerian government in collaboration with various NGOs has introduced community-based strategies for increasing the rate of literacy among both children and adults in all aspects of learning. One such example is the Centre of Excellence for Literacy and Literacy Education (CELLE), which is an NGO that aims to increase national development through increased literacy education.

One of their major initiatives was launched in 1992 and is called the Premier Reading Club (PRC), which is a nationally organized club with a well-organized setup and methods for teaching children and adults, as well as building enthusiasm to read and share their ideas. These programs have achieved varying levels of success in different regions of the country, with the major set-back being that funding has not been easy to come by. Formal and informal literacy education in Nigeria was a priority, and so received a significant boost under the colonial rule of Britain, but since independence in 1960, educational funding has largely declined, and the focus of the government has largely shifted to other, areas, some of which have amounted to wastefulness and national stagnation.

Informal education has also aimed at being a tool to help address other issues other than illiteracy. There have been several calls to incorporate informal HIV/AIDS education into the prison education system, but these calls have been frequently met with little or no interest by the authorities. This population is in need of this education as inmates (who will one day be released back into society) are not exposed to the standard methods of TV and print media campaigns which are the traditional methods that have been used to address the issue.

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From a business perspective, most of the business education that is given to the youth through informal education (apprenticeships) is based purely on practical aspects, and almost completely ignore the western methods of doing business, including aspects like marketing, branding, accounting, and so on. These businesses use a kind of traditional approach, which works because it seems well suited to the accepted norms and ways of life of the Nigerian people. This system has produced more millionaires than the University system can claim to have done, even with all the Universities put together.

Overall, the informal education system in Nigeria can be described as diverse and complicated. Despite large lip support for investment in adult literacy and in vocational education, a lack of real legislative action, and funding challenges have stalled the implementation of many literacies and vocational programs in Nigeria.

One study that looked into the involvement of the national government in education and literacy programs concluded that the high prevalence of illiteracy rates in Nigeria was significantly related to the lack of commitment from the government at all levels towards its inclusion in the standardized education policies.

That’s all about the types of educational policies in Nigeria.

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  • Types of Educational Institutions in Nigeria
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What are the types of educational policy? ›

After this, we will explore three types of educational policies: the privatisation of education, educational equality and the marketisation of education.

What are the educational policies in Nigeria? ›

Basic Education is. by law, compulsory for all children of school age in Nigeria. In public schools, it is provided free through the Universal Basic Education (UBE) which is backed by legislation (The Compulsory, Free, Universal Basic Education Act, 2004).

What are the types of education in Nigeria? ›

The Nigerian formal educational structure is divided into: Basic education. Senior secondary school education. Tertiary education.

What are the three education policies? ›

Kothari) (1964-66), National Policy on Education (1968), Draft National Policy on Education (1979) National Policy on Education (1986) and National Policy on Education (1992), Concluding remarks.

What are the 4 types of policy? ›

The four main types of public policy include regulatory policy, constituent policy, distributive policy, and redistributive policy. These four policy types differ in terms of what their goals are, and who they impact or benefit.

What are the main types of policies? ›

Four types of policies include Public Policy, Organizational Policy, Functional Policy, and Specific Policy. Policy refers to a course of action proposed by an organization or individual.

How many education policies are there? ›

India has had three to date. The first came in 1968 and the second in 1986, under Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi respectively; the NEP of 1986 was revised in 1992 when P V Narasimha Rao was Prime Minister.

How many policies are there in education? ›

India has so far three education policies after independence. The first national education policy in India came in 1968 and the second in 1986; the national education policy of 1986 was revised in 1992.

What are the 5 policies in school? ›

10 Essential Policies for Your Student Handbook
  • of 10. Attendance Policy. Attendance does matter. ...
  • of 10. Bullying Policy. ...
  • of 10. Cell Phone Policy. ...
  • of 10. Dress Code Policy. ...
  • of 10. Fighting Policy. ...
  • of 10. Respect Policy. ...
  • of 10. Student Code of Conduct. ...
  • of 10. Student Discipline.
3 Jul 2019

How many are types of education? ›

There are three fundamental kinds of education, specifically, Formal, Informal, and Non-formal.

What are the types of education and explain? ›

Education goes beyond what takes places within the four walls of the classroom. A child gets the education from his experiences outside the school as well as from those within on the basis of these factors. There are three main types of education, namely, Formal, Informal and Non-formal.

What is the main type of education? ›

There are three main types of education , namely, Formal, Informal and Non-formal.

What educational policy means? ›

definition. Official statements of goals to which the system of education is directed.

What is basic education policy? ›

Basic education is related to the basic needs and interest of the education for the development of a child. The aim of Gandhiji's basic education was to educate the students on crafts which would enable them to solve the problems of their livelihood and at the same time develop qualities of good citizenship.

What are functions of educational policy? ›

It usually provides a general guide that facilitates decision-making. Educational policies provide the direction for educational activities. The formulation of an educational policy sets the stage for implementation which, according to Ukeje (1986), is perhaps the most important aspect of planning.

What are the three types of policies and explain each? ›

Public policies will include laws, rules, regulations, judgments, case studies, government programs, etc. Now public policies and their nature are basically of three types – restrictive, regulatory and facilitating policies.

What are the five stages of policy? ›

The policy process normally is seen as having a series of sequential parts or stages. These are (a) problem emergence, (b) agenda setting, (c) consideration of policy options, (d) decision making, (e) implementation, and (f) evaluation.

What are the 4 stages of the policy process? ›

U.S. policy development encompasses several stages. Most policy models generally include the following stages: (1) identifying the issue to be addressed by the proposed policy, (2) placement on the agenda, (3) formulation of the policy, (4) implementation of the policy, and (5) evaluation of the policy.

How many types of policy do we have? ›

The American political scientist Theodore J. Lowi proposed four types of policy, namely distributive, redistributive, regulatory and constituent in his article "Four Systems of Policy, Politics and Choice" and in "American Business, Public Policy, Case Studies and Political Theory".

What are the three examples of policy? ›

10 examples of policies and procedures in the workplace
  • Code of conduct. A code of conduct is a common policy found in most businesses. ...
  • Recruitment policy. ...
  • Internet and email policy. ...
  • Mobile phone policy. ...
  • Smoking policy. ...
  • Drug and alcohol policy. ...
  • Health and safety policy. ...
  • Anti-discrimination and harassment policy.

What is a policy short answer? ›

A policy is a set of ideas or plans that is used as a basis for making decisions, especially in politics, economics, or business. ... plans which include changes in foreign policy and economic reforms.

What is the name of education policy? ›

In April 2022, the UGC (University Grants Commission) approved simultaneous dual degrees, both in physical and online modes. In October 2022, Ministry of Education released New Curriculum Framework for 3-8 years children and National Credit Framework inline of NEP 2020.

What is the latest education policy? ›

The National Education Policy will universalize education from preschool to Secondary School. Previously the pattern of 10 + 2 was followed which has now changed to 5 + 3 + 3 + 4. New Education Policy is also going to take place by bringing changes in Higher Education across India.

What is the new education policy 2022? ›

The new NEP is based on four pillars which are Access, Equity, Quality, and Accountability. In this new policy, there will be a 5+3+3+4 structure which comprises 12 years of school and 3 years of Anganwadi/ pre-school replacing old 10+2 structure.

Which policy is best for education? ›

LIC Jeevan Ankur is one of the best benefits for children offered by LIC. This is a traditional plan that has carefully designed themes that help in the planning and future of a child's education. This plan means that parents are still insured in life and that their children are still appointed.

What is the meaning of 5 3 3 4 education policy? ›

The curricular and pedagogical structure and the curricular framework for school education will therefore be guided by a 5+3+3+4 design, consisting of the Foundational Stage (in two parts, that is, 3 years of Anganwadi/pre-school + 2 years in primary school in Grades 1-2; both together covering ages 3-8), Preparatory ...

Who is the father of education? ›

Known as the “father of American education,” Horace Mann (1796–1859), a major force behind establishing unified school systems, worked to establish a varied curriculum that excluded sectarian instruction.

What are the 4 levels of education? ›

Education in the United States follows a pattern similar to that in many systems. Early childhood education is followed by primary school (called elementary school in the United States), middle school, secondary school (called high school in the United States), and then postsecondary (tertiary) education.

What are the 3 types of school? ›

  • Types of schools.
  • Government schools. The majority of students study in government schools where poor and vulnerable students study for free until the age of 14. ...
  • Government aided Private Schools. ...
  • Private Schools (unaided) ...
  • International Schools. ...
  • Home-Schooling. ...
  • Open and Distance learning. ...
  • International Education.

What are the types of education PDF? ›

There are three main types of education, namely, Formal, Informal and Non-formal. Each of these types is briefly described below. attending the institution. Formal education is structured hierarchically.

What are the 7 levels of education? ›

  • Primary education or first stage of basic education.
  • Lower secondary or second stage of basic education.
  • Upper secondary education.
  • Post-secondary non-tertiary education.
  • First stage of tertiary education (not leading directly to an advanced research qualification)

What is the first type of education? ›

The first education system was created in Xia dynasty (2076–1600 BC). During Xia dynasty, government built schools to educate aristocrats about rituals, literature and archery (important for ancient Chinese aristocrats).

What is the highest type of education? ›

Doctoral degree. The top of the academic degree hierarchy, a doctoral degree represents the most in-depth education within a discipline. Upon completion of a rigorous program, doctoral students are designated as authoritative experts in their field. Completing a doctoral program isn't just a feather in your cap.

Which type of education is best? ›

The best kind of education for your child
  • Montessori. Montessori is a method of education that focuses on child-centered learning which involves self-directed activity, hands-on learning and collaborative play. ...
  • Traditional Public School. ...
  • Charter School. ...
  • Magnet School. ...
  • Special Education School. ...
  • Home School.

Who makes education policy? ›

The 11-member State Board of Education is California's K-12 policy-making body for academic standards, curriculum, instructional materials, assessments and accountability.

What is the need of education policy? ›

Educational policy is important because it keeps all institutions within the framework of the law and forces them to abide by it, failing to do so resulting in penalties prescribed in the policy.

What is the meaning of Educational Policy PDF? ›

In general, education policy is defined as any systematic intervention to improve the practice of education at all levels. The word systematic is used to describe a process by which means and resources are used to achieve predetermined objectives (targets, goals).

What are the main features of the national policy on education? ›

(a) Commitment of the central and State Governments, political parties, mass media and educational institutions to mass literacy programmes of diverse nature. (b) Involvement of teachers, students, youths, voluntary agencies, employers etc.

What are some issues in education policy? ›

Several of the present issues of education are:
  • Government funding for education. On any list of current issues in education, school funding ranks near the top. ...
  • School safety. ...
  • Disciplinary policies. ...
  • Technology in education. ...
  • Charter schools and voucher programs. ...
  • Common Core. ...
  • Standardized testing. ...
  • Teacher salaries.
19 May 2022

What is education policy and examples? ›

Education policy consists of the principles and policy decisions that influence the field of education, as well as the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems. Education policy analysis is the scholarly study of education policy.

When was Nigeria educational policy formed? ›

The National Policy on Education since 1977

The 1977 National Policy on Education was geared towards addressing the problems of educational relevance to the needs and aspirations of Nigerians as well as promoting Nigeria's unity and laying the foundation for national integration.

What are the problems of educational policy in Nigeria? ›

Theses inadequate funding is the most critical challenge that has threatened policy implementation and the attainment of good quality tertiary education in Nigeria. Inadequate funding of education has been a scourge to educational development in the country.

What are 5 types of education? ›

The Different Types of Education
  • Formal Education. If you've been through the current regular way of schooling, be it from a public or private school, you can say that you've had a formal education. ...
  • Informal Education. ...
  • Non-Formal. ...
  • Special Education. ...
  • Preschool. ...
  • Elementary School. ...
  • Secondary Education. ...
  • Post-Secondary Education.
14 Dec 2019

What education policy means? ›

Education policy includes laws as well as processes and policies that educational organizations, local districts, states, and nations put in place and follow to achieve academic goals.

What is the importance of educational policy? ›

Policies are important because they help a school establish rules and procedures and create standards of quality for learning and safety, as well as expectations and accountability. Without these, schools would lack the structure and function necessary to provide the educational needs of students.

Why do we have policies in education? ›

Policies ensure that values are applied consistently, define clear expectations, and help provide a framework for employees and students alike. Staff are responsible for familiarising themselves with the school's policies, and for following the procedures contained within them.


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