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BERLIN — Claudia Niessler wouldn’t have attended a university that charged tuition, though even without it her living expenses while in college require her to work as many as 20 hours a week at a supermarket.
Stefan Steinbock pipes in that having to pay tuition would discourage people with good grades but low incomes from getting university degrees, and that not having to do so means he can focus on his academics.
But Peter-André Alt contends that being unable to charge tuition means universities are overcrowded and thinly stretched, and that hard-pressed taxpayers are unfairly forced to fill the void, even if they don’t go to college or have kids who do.
Niessler and Steinbock are students at, and Alt the president of, Freie Universität Free University Berlin They embody the surprising ambivalence, unexpected nuances, and general pros and cons of making university tuition free, as has happened in the last few years in Germany and is proposed in the United States by Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.
The university’s name refers not to its cost, but to its origins at the outset of the Cold War, when it was established to be free of ideological influence in the then-divided city. “The fact of the matter is, of course, that any university, if it is a university, is free,” then-President John F. Kennedy pronounced here on the same day in 1963 that he made his famous “Ich bin ein Berliner” speech. “So one might think that the words ‘Free University’ are redundant. But not in West Berlin.”
Like other universities in Germany, Freie Universität was also free of charge in 1963. In 2006, German universities were allowed to begin imposing tuition. Student protests and a political backlash followed, however, and by 2014 tuition was being gradually eliminated at the public universities that educate the vast majority of German students. Except for small administrative fees — at Freie Universität, €304 per semester, or about $341, most of it for a public transit pass — most German undergraduates now pay no tuition.
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This makes Germany an ideal test case for the proposal first raised by Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders — who named it as a model — and that is now a centerpiece of Clinton’s presidential bid.
The verdict? German university enrollment rose by 22 percent as tuition disappeared, the Ministry of Education and Research reports — much faster than in other member countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD — while the number of Germans who opt instead for vocational education has declined. The cost to taxpayers of subsidizing higher education went up 37 percent.
The amount earmarked to help students with their living expenses has remained unchanged for years, however, and, even without having to pay tuition, some such as Niessler increasingly have to resort to jobs or loans to cover rent and food, especially if they’re from lower-income families that can’t help.
Unable to charge for tuition, meanwhile, universities contend that they are blocked from an important source of revenue. And economists wonder how long the government will be able to support these costs, especially with a new law looming that will limit the amount of money states, or Länder — which operate the universities — can borrow.
Now, two years after the last few German universities went tuition-free, Germans are almost equally split about the idea, with 44 percent in favor of reimposing tuition and 46 percent wanting to keep things as they are, according to a survey conducted earlier this year by the Ifo Center for the Economics of Education at Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich.
When informed that university graduates earn 40 percent more than those with only vocational educations, the proportion who support bringing back tuition rises to half. And an even higher 60 percent like the idea of requiring students to pay for their tuition after graduating, as a portion of their incomes, in a model similar to those in place in England and Australia. (In separate polls by Public Agenda and the Campaign for Free College Tuition, about two-thirds of Americans said they support making tuition free for lower- and middle-income students; a more recent survey by the foundation New America puts the figure as high as 70 percent, but also found that people think the idea is unaffordable.)
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Analysts raise worries similar to those that have come up in Germany about the Clinton plan, which would leverage state and federal money to make in-state public universities and colleges that account for more than two-thirds of U.S. enrollment tuition-free by 2021 for students from families with incomes of as much as $125,000.
The proposal would increase enrollment at those institutions by from 9 to 22 percent, Georgetown University’s Center for Education and the Workforce predicts. It would cost an estimated $350 billion over 10 years, according to the Clinton campaign, which says the money would come from eliminating certain tax deductions for the wealthiest Americans. (Republican nominee Donald Trump has called for a plan under which repayments of student loans would be capped at 12.5 percent of the borrower’s income, and the debt forgiven altogether after 15 years.)
Critics say the biggest burden and the one rising fastest for American students isn’t tuition, but other costs, including room and board, books, supplies, and transportation, as Sara Goldrick-Rab, a professor of education policy at Temple University, who studies this, argues in a new book, “Paying the Price: College Costs, Financial Aid, and the Betrayal of the American Dream.”
In Germany, low-income students can get €650 a month, or about $580, in a combination of grants and loans toward their living expenses. Since almost all students live off campus, this creates the unanticipated reality that even in a country where the universities don’t charge tuition, students graduate with debt.
“We don’t want students to go into debt because they want to study,” said Mandy Gratz, a member of the executive committee of the Freier Zusammenschluss von StudentInnenschaften, or FZS, the German students’ union, which has called for grants to be increased and eligibility widened.
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Their accumulating costs of living means 68 percent of German students work, the FZS says, and “students from a lower socioeconomic background try to study faster,” Gratz said over coffee in a café in Berlin’s Mitte district. “They usually also try to choose fields of studies that are more directly linked to the professions,” meaning practical subjects such as marketing and human resources that can get them jobs with earnings high enough to repay their loans, but steer away from longer-term programs in disciplines such as medicine or law, with the result that those are largely populated by the wealthy.
[pullquote author=”Peter-André Alt, president, Freie Universität Berlin” description=”” style=”new-pullquote”]“The taxpayer is paying for the universities whether or not they’re benefitting. A fee system assigns the cost to the person who is benefitting.”[/pullquote]
Then again, Gregor Eichorn, another student at Freie Universität, said with a shrug, “You’ve got to live somewhere anyway. You’ve got to eat anyway.”
Pausing in a corridor outside Freie Universität’s math and physics library, which looks like an alien spaceship crashed to earth, he said, “I don’t think going to university should be elitist. People should be able to study whatever they want to. If you really want to educate yourself in this country, you’ve got the possibility.”
Gratz herself, she said, is the first in her family to go to college. She started out in college majoring in comparative literature and political science, but, concerned those subjects might not lead to salaries high enough to pay her loans, has switched to pursuing a teaching degree while also working one full- and one part-time job.
The disproportionate burden of living costs has had an impact in at least one other country where tuition has been jettisoned in 2007 for students under 25: Scotland, where the Scottish Parliament Information Centre says enrollment is up by 17 percent since then. But most low-income students saw no advantage when Scottish universities stopped charging tuition, since they were already exempt from it, research at the University of Edinburgh found. When the shift was underwritten in part with cuts in grants to cover their rent and food, researchers found, the net effect was a transfer of £20 million a year in benefits, or more than $25 million, from lower-income students to their higher-income classmates who could afford to pay tuition but no longer do.
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In Germany, making tuition free hasn’t created any noticeable change in who goes to college one way or the other, said Ludger Woessmann, a professor of economics at the University of Munich and director if the Ifo Center for the Economics of Education. As in other countries, that depends more on whether or not their parents went than what the cost is, Woessmann said.
Three-quarters of children of people who have university degrees in Germany go to college, he said, compared to a quarter of those who don’t. (In all, 57 percent of the equivalent of high school graduates go on to college here, the OECD reports, compared to what the Bureau of Labor Statistics says is 69 percent of their American counterparts.)
The Georgetown analysis projects that, under Clinton’s plan, so many people in the United States would apply to go to top public universities that those would become much more selective, shutting out poor and nonwhite students, who would land in already overburdened open-access regional public universities and community colleges with low success rates.
In Germany, the shift to dependence on government funding, combined with the increase in enrollment that resulted from abandoning tuition, has also meant a 10 percent decline in spending per student in the last few years, the OECD reports, to about $16,895, compared to $27,924 in the United States. Starved for funding, German universities are seldom near the top of international rankings.
German undergraduates, Gratz said, are stuck in lecture halls “with hundreds and hundreds of students.” Ph.D. candidates, she said, do much of the instructing. The universities “say they do not have enough money for research. But they do not have enough money for teaching, either.”
She’d get little argument from Alt, the president of Freie Universität, outside of whose office in a renovated art deco former fire insurance company headquarters are still mementoes of that Kennedy visit, including the original notes of JFK’s speech.
“One disadvantage is that we lose one opportunity to enhance our financial support and budget situations,” said Alt, who spends much of his time vying for independent sources of funding such as international grants and corporate gifts. If the university could collect fees, he said, “We could invest much more and we could do much more.”
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Also, Alt said, when most of the costs fall to the government to cover, “The taxpayer is paying for the universities whether or not they’re benefitting. A fee system assigns the cost to the person who is benefitting.” This in a country with the third-highest tax rate in the OECD, of almost 50 percent of income.
Woessmann, the economist, agreed that, “as a general rule, universities in Germany do have much less resources than at least the higher-level universities in the U.S. University presidents in general will always tell you they don’t have enough money, but in general I think they have a point there. If the universities were able to [impose] tuition fees, that would surely in general affect the quality.”
Those arguments have so far largely been eclipsed, however, in a country where — unlike in the United States, where barely one in five college-aged Americans go to the polls — college students vote in huge numbers. “In the end, it was a political issue,” Alt said with a sigh. Candidates “could lose a campaign for charging fees.”
If not politics, then economics could raise the next challenge to the German experiment with free tuition. A provision called, in German, Schuldenbremse, or “debt brake,” will limit how much the Länder can borrow, beginning in 2020, restricting the amount available to cover the cost of college educations.
“We will come into a situation where, just like in any downturn, there will be real problems for states to keep up the funding for the universities, or raise it,” Woessmann said. “And I think by that time we’ll have another discussion about free university tuition.”
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- Parental and Personal Involvement. When someone has to pay for either their own or their child's education, they become more involved in the entire education process. ...
- Class Size. Public schools often have large class sizes due to limited funding. ...
- Government Involvement. ...
- Tax Increases.
Free College Is Not Directly Linked to Economic Growth
Since the provision of free college could affect the quality of education, free access for all to postsecondary education might not be able to provide the competencies and skills needed to produce a strong workforce.
Free college tuition programs have proved effective in helping mitigate the system's current inequities by increasing college enrollment, lowering dependence on student loan debt and improving completion rates, especially among students of color and lower-income students who are often the first in their family to ...What are 3 reasons college should not be free? ›
- 1 The Politics of Higher Education.
- 2 Issues With Graduated Students.
- 3 There Is Already Plenty Of Help Available.
- 4 Choice Would Be Limited.
- 5 More Government Control.
- 6 Negative Effects From The Public.
- 7 Not Everybody Wants To Go To College.
The findings revealed that the implementations of fee-free education policy encounter several challenges including the inadequacy of teaching and learning resources, shortage of classrooms, and shortage of latrines are addressed properly.Is free college good for society? ›
Research shows that free tuition programs encourage more students to attend college and increase graduation rates, which creates a better-educated workforce and higher-earning consumers who can help boost the economy.How would free college affect the quality of education? ›
In fact, free college could end up reducing graduation rates by negatively impacting education quality and driving down enrollment at private institutions, which tend to see higher graduation rates.What are the disadvantages of free community college? ›
- Con 1. Tuition-free college is not free college and students will still have large debts. ...
- Con 2. Taxpayers would spend billions to subsidize tuition, while other college costs remained high. ...
- Con 3.
Making college education free reduces the amount of student debt being carried over time. Making college education free would allow a lot of students to focus on their education and their careers. It could also cost less on the current spending and could save millions in loan debt and grants.What are the pros and cons of community college? ›
- Pro: Cost of Community College. For most undergrads, college is about more than classes. ...
- Con: Lose Out on 4-Year Friendships. ...
- Pro: Community Colleges Tend to Be Local. ...
- Con: Perks and Prestige at Four-Year Universities. ...
- Pro: More Flexibility. ...
- Con: Fewer Programs.
Free primary education is fundamental in guaranteeing everyone has access to education. However, in many developing countries, families often cannot afford to send their children to school, leaving millions of children of school-age deprived of education.How does free education affect society? ›
Those who get an education have higher incomes, have more opportunities in their lives, and tend to be healthier. Societies benefit as well. Societies with high rates of education completion have lower crime, better overall health, and civic involvement. Lack of access to education is considered the root of poverty.What are free schools criticized for? ›
A repeated criticism of free schools is their freedom to recruit unqualified teachers. In many local authority-led schools the practice exists where the teacher is not in the classroom when the lesson is being delivered and an unqualified teaching assistant is the only adult in the classroom.What are the advantages and disadvantages of university education? ›
- You can become an expert in a subject you love. ...
- University can prepare you for a specific career path. ...
- Graduates earn more. ...
- Uni gives you time to gain work experience. ...
- You'll get a taste of independence. ...
- You will gain high-level transferable skills. ...
- It can broaden your mind. ...
- You may not gain technical skills.
Proponents of free college argue that the change would boost the country's productivity and GDP as people sorted themselves into more suitable, higher-paying jobs. There are also social benefits to having a more educated populace and helping young people find their path.What are the advantages of free education in Zambia? ›
Poverty and diseases, crime and early marriages are also prevented as children will be busy with school work and use their basic knowledge to do a lot of developmental activities like entrepreneurship that has been introduced and also just becoming responsible children who are well informed about their rights not to ...What are the 3 main benefits of a college education? ›
- You will be more marketable. ...
- Access to more job opportunities. ...
- Higher earning potential. ...
- Opportunity to change industries. ...
- Greater job stability.
- Discover Your Interests. College tends to be a time full of discovery. ...
- Increased Job Opportunities. Many jobs require a college degree. ...
- Higher Potential Earnings. ...
- Lower Unemployment Rate. ...
- Job Satisfaction and Security. ...
- Improved Skills. ...
- Personal Development. ...
- Improves Society. When people are more educated, they can solve problems better. ...
- Widened Workforce. Along with technological progressions comes a shift in the workforce. ...
- A Boosted Economy. Most students graduate with a massive amount of debt. ...
- Increase Equality. ...
- More Focus.
First, it puts a harsh financial burden on government and institutions. Second, negative social effects take place, such as the fact that high-income families are in better conditions with tuition-free colleges than the low-income ones. Third, in a common vision, a college degree would have no sense and be devalued.
Research shows that free tuition programs encourage more students to attend college and increase graduation rates, which creates a better-educated workforce and higher-earning consumers who can help boost the economy.Who would benefit most from free college? ›
Free college programs benefit higher-income students the most. 2. Most free college programs don't address the real costs of college. There are better ways to spend taxpayer dollars and improve college affordability, especially for those who need it most.Is free education better than paid education? ›
In some countries free education is offered for primary or even secondary levels. In conclusion, the paid education ensures a far better quality education as compared to the free education and the free education only provides the poor children with a chance to get the education and get in the competition.